Eurobarometer 93.1: standard Eurobarometer and COVID-19 Pandemic (2020)

European Commission


Changelog (Archive version):

3.0 - 2022-02-21
* data and metadata updated to the latest release (2.0.0)

2.0 - 2021-07-07
* data and metadata updated to the latest release (1.2.0)

1.0 - 2021-03-15
* first import routine of the study



Changelog (Source release):

2.0.0 - 2022-02-10
* archive prerelease edition

1.2.0 - 2021-06-01
* pre-release update

1.1.0 - 2021-02-15
* pre-release update



UniData provides two kind of data access:

  • open data
    (all users can use the data - an expense allowance could be required)
  • restricted data
    (the data use is limited - see below)

Data Kind:
individual data

Time Dimensions:
longitudinal (trend repeated cross-section)

Series Name:
EB - Eurobarometer

661.73 KB
2.33 MB
other documentation

The Eurobarometer survey is designed to provide regular monitoring of public social and political attitudes in the EU through specific trend questions. Therefore, the general aim of EB is to know the attitudes and evaluations of European citizens about large general themes. The questions concern to the European integration issues, but sometimes they regard also specific problem about single country or common problems of economic, political or social nature.

The arguments of Eurobarometer 93.1 are as follows:

  • Standard trend questions on: living conditions, important political issues, trust in institutions, democracy satisfaction, perception of and attitudes towards the European Union and European Unification, European Union knowledge;
  • Covid-19 Pandemic: the EU and the Coronavirus Outbreak;
  • Policy priorities;
  • European Citizenship: European Citizenship, citizen rights and identification;
  • EU budget: perceptions and preferences.

Data are available for free (registration required). After logging in, please click on the green button download_arrow in the box at the right.

Keywords: , , , , , ,

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Topic Classification:

  • ECONOMICS - economic conditions and indicators
  • ECONOMICS - economic policy
  • HEALTH - health policy
  • POLITICS - government, political systems and organisations
  • POLITICS - international politics and organisations
  • POLITICS - mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • SOCIETY AND CULTURE - cultural and national identity
  • Nations: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Turkish Cypriot Community, United Kingdom

    Geographical Unit: size community

    Analysis Unit: individual

    Universe: residents in the respective country aged 15 and over

    Sample Procedure: About 1,000 individuals for each country. Multi-stage stratified random sample

    Weight: Weight used. Please read the documentation for any details

    Collection Mode: face to face interview, web-based self-administered questionnaire (CAWI), Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)

    Collection Size: UniData supplies: 1 dataset in SPSS format; 1 dataset in STATA format; 2 questionnaire in PDF format (eng, ita); 1 methodological notes in PDF format (eng); 1 ZIP file including the documentation from the source (translation of question numbers in the questionnaire into variable names in the dataset) (6 file)


    Methodological Notes (pdf):
    Documentation (zip):
    DDI Documentation:
    DDI Documentation

    Data Use Restriction:
    UniData – official representative for the dissemination of Eurobarometer surveys in Italy – provides a free data access for all Italian residents upon registration. Data are released in according to GESIS Licence (Category 0), available at this link. Other users will need to contact the GESIS Data Archive.
    Source Contact: Service - GESIS

    European Commission. (2020) Eurobarometer 93.1: standard Eurobarometer and COVID-19 Pandemic. Kantar Public [Producer]. GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences [Producer]. UniData - Bicocca Data Archive, Milan. Study Number SI386. Data file version 3.0

    Deposit Requirement:
    The user is obliged to quote all data and documents disseminated by UniData and used in the own publications, using the information previously showed. The user is also obliged to send UniData the bibliographic citations related to the publications where the requested data and documents are used.

    Neither the depositor nor UniData bear any responsibility for the analysis or interpretation of the data produced by the user.


    This wave of the Standard Eurobarometer was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. This necessitated a number of adjustments to the data collection process. Please consult the information referring to this in the Technical Specifications in the basic questionnaire.

    Modules QA to QD in the standard Eurobarometer context and largely replicating questions asked in the context of Eurobarometer 92.3 and Eurobarometer 91.5.

    Please note that the absence of several question numbers in the questionnaires and the dataset is intended. In addition, the main questionnaire variable names in the dataset diverge from those assigned in the questionnaire. The file “ZA7649_Numbering_Mapping.pdf” available via “Other documents” describes the translation of question numbers in the questionnaire into variable names in the dataset.

    The variable names of the standard demography variables have been changed according to the usual Eurobarometer nomenclature.

    Data for protocol variables p2 (time of interview), p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number), and p10 (interviewer number) have not been made available.

    A corrected version of protocol variable p1 (date of interview) has been delivered to the archive and is supplied in version 1.1.0.

    Variables d40abc_r1 to d40abc_r4 (“HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION: SIZE A+B+C (REC)”), d40_d11 (“ONE-PERSON HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION BY AGE”) and region_germany_wt (“REGION GERMANY”) have been corrected in version 1.2.0.

    Variables w3 (“WEIGHT GERMANY”), p3 (“DURATION OF INTERVIEW (MINUTES)”), p6 (“SIZE OF COMMUNITY”) and p13 (“LANGUAGE OF INTERVIEW”) were added in version 2.0.0. For p13 there is a second variable p13_2 (“LANGUAGE OF INTERVIEW BE ES LV MT”) for which the languages can be obtained from the respective country questionnaires.