Eurobarometer 84.4: development, cooperation and aid, animal welfare, tobacco black market, nature-based solutions (2015)

European Commission


Changelog (Archive version):

4.0 - 2019-10-10
* data update to the new release (4.0.0)

3.0 - 2018-06-19
* data update to the new release (3.0.0)

2.0 - 2017-01-25
* data update to the new release (2.0.0)

1.0 - 2016-05-13
* data import



Changelog (Source release):

4.0.0 - 2019-09-05
* Archive edition

3.0.0 - 2018-04-26
* Archive pre-release

2.0.0 - 2016-10-17
* Archive pre-release (embargo subset)

1.0.0 - 2016-03-14
* Archive pre-release



UniData provides two kind of data access:

  • open data
    (all users can use the data - an expense allowance could be required)
  • restricted data
    (the data use is limited - see below)

Data Kind:
individual data

Time Dimensions:

Series Name:
EB - Eurobarometer

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The Eurobarometer survey is designed to provide regular monitoring of public social and political attitudes in the EU through specific trend questions. Therefore, the general aim of EB is to know the attitudes and evaluations of European citizens about large general themes. The questions concern to the European integration issues, but sometimes they regard also specific problem about single country or common problems of economic, political or social nature.

The arguments of Eurobarometer 84.4 are as follows:

  • EU development aid: opinion about how important is helping people in developing countries and self-rated knowledge about deveopment aid. Political  and istitutional engagement in  reducing poverty in some developing countries of the world and personal engagement.
  • Animal welfare: understanding of animal welfare. Opinion about the importance to protect the welfare of farmed animals, about laws concerning it, about EU engagement. Inclination to buy animal welfare-friendly products at a higher cost. Importance of a legal obligation with regard to the protection of animals for commercial purposes within and outside of EU.
  • Tobacco black market: smoking status. Personal experiences about black market tobacco: sources and places of finding, main reasons for smoking it. Relations between black market and organized crime.
  • Nature-based solutions: presence of natural elements and main ecological/social problems in living area. Benefits and concerns linked to the introduction of green areas in a neighborhood or in a city. Opinion about the introduction of nature-based solutions in living area: personal engagement, potential barriers.
  • Demography: political position, household composition, occupation, possession of technology devices and of internet connection, current financial status and opinion about a future improvement, general life satisfaction, frequency of political discussions (national and european politics), EU image.

Data are available for free (registration required). After logging in, please click on the green button download_arrow in the box at the right.

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Topic Classification:

  • ECONOMICS - economic systems and development
  • ECONOMICS - rural economics
  • HEALTH - drug abuse, alcohol and smoking
  • NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - environmental degradation/pollution and protection
  • NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - natural landscapes
  • NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - natural resources and energy
  • POLITICS - international politics and organisations
  • SOCIETY AND CULTURE - community, urban and rural life
  • TRADE, INDUSTRY AND MARKETS - agricultural, forestry and rural industry
  • Nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden

    Geographical Unit: size community

    Analysis Unit: individual

    Universe: Residents in the respective country aged 15 and over.

    Sample Procedure: About 1000 for each country. Multi-stage stratified random sample.

    Weight: Weight used. Please read the documentation for any details

    Collection Mode: face to face interview, Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)

    Collection Size: UniData supplies: 1 dataset in SPSS format; 1 syntax file related to missing cases; 1 dataset in STATA format; 2 questionnaire in PDF format (eng, ita); 1 methodological notes and codebook in PDF format (eng)
    (6 file)


    Methodological Notes and codebook (pdf):
    DDI Documentation:
    DDI Documentation

    Data Use Restriction:
    UniData – official representative for the dissemination of Eurobarometer surveys in Italy – provides a free data access for all Italian residents upon registration. Data are released in according to GESIS Licence (Category 0), available at this link. Other users will need to contact the GESIS Data Archive.
    Source Contact: Eurobarometer Data Service - GESIS

    European Commission. (2015) Eurobarometer 84.4: development, cooperation and aid, animal welfare, tobacco black market, nature-based solutions. TNS Opinion & Social [Producer]. GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences [Producer]. UniData - Bicocca Data Archive, Milan. Study Number SI354. Data file version 4.0

    Deposit Requirement:
    The user is obliged to quote all data and documents disseminated by UniData and used in the own publications, using the information previously showed. The user is also obliged to send UniData the bibliographic citations related to the publications where the requested data and documents are used.

    Neither the depositor nor UniData bear any responsibility for the analysis or interpretation of the data produced by the user.


    Question module QA on ´Development, Cooperation and Aid´ largely replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 82.1.

    Question module QB on ´Animal Welfare´ is partly based on the corresponding module surveyed in the framework of Eurobarometer 66.1.

    Question module QC on ´Tobacco Black Market´ is newly introduced.

    Question module QD on “Nature based solutions” is newly introduced, and available starting with version v3-0-0 (embargo update).

    Data for protocol variables p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number) and p10 (interviewer number) have not been made available.

    Starting with Eurobarometer 81.3 (with 84.1 for Germany), the category scheme for country specific protocol variables P6 (SIZE OF COMMUNITY) has changed considerably. Categories for all countries have been harmonized among each other to three values (Rural area – Towns and suburbs/small urban area – Cities/large urban areas).

    Starting with Eurobarometer 81.3 the category scheme for country specific protocol variables P7 (REGION) has changed for some countries, in particular introducing NUTS categories for Ireland, Estonia, and Croatia.

    Please note abnormal frequency distributions due to fieldwork irregularities for the Region variable for Austria (p7at, p7at_r), in particular for Vorarlberg. While the number of cases for Vorarlberg hovers between 46 (4,4% if based on weighted data) in Eurobarometer 84.1 and 44 (4,4% if based on weighted data) in Eurobarometer 84.3, due to fieldwork irregularities there are only three cases for Vorarlberg in Eurobarometer 84.4 (0,3% if based on weighted data). This is not the proportion expected for this NUTS2 region.

    In the course of a new dataset delivery from TNS the REGION variable for Romania has been corrected for an abnormal frequency distribution in version v2-0-0. Please note that the number of cases changed for the regions “Sud-Est (South-East)” and “Bucuresti –Ilfov (Bucharest)“ in variable p7ro: 80 former cases from “Sud-Est (South-East)” are now coded “Bucuresti -Ilfov (Bucharest)“. Accordingly the number of cases also changed for the regions “Macroregion 2” and “Macroregion 3” in variable p7ro_r. As a consequence of this data correction weights referring to Romania have been modified. Please note that official reports and tables may be based on former weights and slight deviations to the current dataset results can exist.