Eurobarometer 94.1: Future of Europe, Democracy in the EU, and Values and Identities of EU citizens (2020)

European Commission


Changelog (Archive version):

1.0 - 2023-03-21
* first import routine of the study



Changelog (Source release):

1.0.0 - 2022-08-24
* archive pre-release edition



UniData provides two kind of data access:

  • open data
    (all users can use the data - an expense allowance could be required)
  • restricted data
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Data Kind:
individual data

Time Dimensions:
longitudinal (trend repeated cross-section)

Series Name:
EB - Eurobarometer

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The Eurobarometer survey is designed to provide regular monitoring of public social and political attitudes in the EU through specific trend questions. Therefore, the general aim of EB is to know the attitudes and evaluations of European citizens about large general themes. The questions concern to the European integration issues, but sometimes they regard also specific problem about single country or common problems of economic, political or social nature.

The arguments of Eurobarometer 94.1 are as follows:

  • Future of Europe: opinions on the Conference on the Future of Europe and interest in participating; main strengths and challenges for the EU; options that would allow the greatest progress on global challenges for the future of the EU; values best represented by the EU or other countries (or groups of countries); advantages and disadvantages of EU membership of individual countries; EU and Coronavirus pandemic
  • Democracy in the EU: concerns about electoral fraud; electronic voting, online or by mail; new media regulations during elections
  • Values and Identities of EU citizens: importance of religion; personal identity; electoral behavior.

Data are available for free (registration required). After logging in, please click on the green button download_arrow in the box at the right.

Keywords: , , ,

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Topic Classification:

  • POLITICS - elections
  • POLITICS - international politics and organisations
  • POLITICS - mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • SOCIETY AND CULTURE - cultural and national identity
  • SOCIETY AND CULTURE - religion and values
  • Nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden

    Geographical Unit: size community

    Analysis Unit: individual

    Universe: residents in the respective country aged 15 and over

    Sample Procedure: about 1,000 individuals for each country. Multi-stage stratified random sample

    Weight: Weight used. Please read the documentation for any details

    Collection Mode: web-based self-administered questionnaire (CAWI), Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)

    Collection Size: UniData supplies: 1 dataset in SPSS format; 1 dataset in STATA format; 2 questionnaire in PDF format (eng, ita); 1 methodological notes in PDF format (eng) (5 file)


    Methodological Notes (pdf):
    DDI Documentation:
    DDI Documentation

    Data Use Restriction:
    UniData – official representative for the dissemination of Eurobarometer surveys in Italy – provides a free data access for all Italian residents upon registration. Data are released in according to GESIS Licence (Category 0), available at this link. Other users will need to contact the GESIS Data Archive.
    Source Contact: Eurobarometer Data Service - GESIS

    European Commission. (2020) Eurobarometer 94.1: Future of Europe, Democracy in the EU, and Values and Identities of EU citizens. Kantar Public [Producer]. GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences [Producer]. UniData - Bicocca Data Archive, Milan. Study Number SI401. Data file version 1.0

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    Neither the depositor nor UniData bear any responsibility for the analysis or interpretation of the data produced by the user.


    This wave of Eurobarometer was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. This necessitated a number of adjustments to the data collection process. Please consult the information referring to this in the Technical Specifications in the basic questionnaire.

    Question module QA “Future of Europe” partly replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 91.2, Eurobarometer 90.2, and Eurobarometer 87.1.

    Question module QB “Democracy in the EU” partly replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 90.1.

    Question module QC “Values and Identities of EU citizens” was newly introduced.

    Variables qc6 and qc7 cannot be made available.

    Data for protocol variables p2 (time of interview), p3 (duration of interview), p6 (size of locality), p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number), p10 (interviewer number), and p13 (language of interview) have not been made available.